Database Management Basics

Database management is the system for managing information that aids the organization’s business processes. It includes data storage and distribution to users and application programs, modifying it as necessary as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing the data from becoming damaged due to unexpected failures. It is part of the overall infrastructure of a company that aids in decision-making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) that enabled the storage and retrieve large amounts of data for a wide range of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a set of tables that organizes data according to an established pattern, such as one-to many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table has a variety of fields, referred to as attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. The most popular type of database currently is a relational model created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based upon normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data without the need to change various databases.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support various types of databases, by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability, and other operational issues, such as the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It may include a mix of different external views that are based on different data models. It may include virtual table that are calculated using generic data in order to improve the performance.

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